FACILITATION PAYMENTS – these are bribes, also called facilitating, speed or grease payments. They’re made to secure or expedite the performance of a routine or necessary action to which the payer actually has legal or other entitlement.
FAKELAKI – this Greek term is close to the notion of ‘tip’ in meaning, but at the same time it may refer to specific tariffs demanded by government officials in order to bypass procedure. Fakelaki is also connected to a work-culture that perceives various official documents, such as a driver’s licence, as papers you need to buy with money. Fakelaki is illegal, but its continuing presence in Greek life remains a problem.
FAVOURITISM – this refers to the normal human inclination to prefer acquaintances, friends and family over strangers. When public (and private sector) officials demonstrate favouritism to unfairly distribute positions and resources, they are guilty of cronyism or nepotism, depending on their relationship with the person who benefits.
FIDUCIARY RISK – corruption is one type of fiduciary risk. For example, in the development aid context, it is the risk that aid funds are not used for the intended purposes, do not achieve value for money, and/or are not properly accounted for. Fiduciary risk is of particular concern when donors provide direct budget support, as partner governments’ public financial management systems are often relatively weak.
FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) – an inter-governmental body, such as the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group, whose purpose is to develop and promote national and international policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. There are several FATF-style regional bodies that have anti-money laundering and combating and financing of terrorism as their objectives.
FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE UNIT (FIU) – an FIU is a central, national agency responsible for receiving (and, as permitted, requesting), analysing and disseminating to the competent authorities, disclosures of financial information: (i) concerning suspected proceeds of crime and potential financing of terrorism, or (ii) required by national legislation or regulation, in order to counter money laundering and terrorism financing.
FRAUD – the unlawful and intentional making of a misrepresentation which causes actual prejudice or which is potentially prejudicial to another. In more common language, the term ‘fraud’ usually includes activities such as illegally transferring company money to your own or a friend’s bank account, pretending to have qualifications you do not have, pretending to have rendered a service that you have not rendered. Synonyms: Swindle, deceit, double-dealing, cheat, and bluff.
FREEDOM OF SPEECH – Freedom of speech is fundamental in a democracy, where the notion that people have the right to share or receive information is a priority. The right to free speech of the media and of citizens is of particular importance in exposing corruption.